It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety.
Major flower markets The major flower markets in India The major markets for flowers are situated in the states, which produce significant quantities of flowers.
Kerala is one state that has a fairly large market without any production of flowers. Some states, particularly Southern ones, have more than one large market in the state as the area under flower production is fairly widely distributed. The major markets in terms of number of traders involved and the quantity traded are in the peninsular and east India.
The city of Bombay itself has three large markets. Calcutta in the east is probably the biggest.
In addition to the market in the city of Calcutta. It is tempting to give an estimate of the value of flowers traded in the country. As this is a study of the industry many readers would also expect an estimate.
We attempted to estimate, but it proved to be quite a difficult task for several reasons. Some of the major markets were visited for discussions with traders during the survey.
First, the traders themselves are very reluctant, for understandable reasons, to reveal their volume of business. Second, the quantity of each flower, which comes into the market, varies from day to day. Third, the sale of many flowers varies widely not only from day to day but also within a day.
We realized the only way to arrive at reliable estimates would be to monitor the markets over extended periods of time. The estimates of volume of trade one comes across, particularly in terms of rupees, are likely to be spurious unless they are based on traders reporting of their sales which is generally not forthcoming.
So, we reluctantly present two indicators of volume of trade in some markets with a great deal of trepidation. The first estimate is based on discussions with traders. This information is available for some of the markets only. The number of commission agents operating in different markets is also available to us.
Some estimates of total trade were given by the representatives of organisations of agents in a few markets.
Two sets of figures are presented. The first is the estimate of trade by individual agents. The total for the market is arrived at by multiplying individual trade by the number of agents in the market. But there are problems.
All agents do not deal in all flowers and our sample was not large enough to determine what portion of the agents deal in a particular flower. Therefore, the figures we have arrived at appear to overestimate the actual trade. The second set of figures is the estimate of trade in the market given by agents themselves.
For example, the estimate of trade in rose is arrived at by multiplying individual volume of trade by the number of agents for the three markets in Bombay and are 31, 29, and 29, dozens per day while estimates of trade given by the agents in the three markets are 6, 6, and 10, dozen per day.
These numbers should at best be treated as upper and lower bounds for the volume of trade taking place in the market. The second set of estimates is likely to be more reliable because it is based on the area of production.
But the production areas themselves are the result of educated guesses of the people we surveyed except in the case of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.
We have attempted to estimate the value of flowers traded in India. The total value of major flowers produced in India at the wholesale prices is estimated to be Rs.
There are problems here too. For some states, details of the area under production of different flowers such as rose which have both varieties, traditional and modern, pose difficulties. There is a substantial area under production of other flowers, the value of which is not included in the above estimate.
Although no formal efforts have been made to organize this industry a marketing system has evolved which performs fairly well with respect to incentives it offers to the producers and the price at which it makes the products available to the consumers.
Flowers, being perishable and delicate, make their marketing challenging. Now we proceed with the discussion of the nature of demand and supply of flowers and the behaviour of market prices.
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